Weightloss Hypnosis

 

Hypnosis is another piece of ammunition in the arsenal of weight loss options available. The number of people who are overweight and obese is expanding each year. Nutritionists and researchers believe that some of the increasing size of the American population is related to the standard Western diet that is mostly fats, oils and sugars.

The goal of weight loss hypnosis is to reprogram the mind so that a person can ‘effortlessly’ lose weight without hunger pangs and cravings. Hypnotists are capitalizing on the very thing that defeats our weight loss efforts – our minds. (1)

Psychologists tell us that most weight problems, in fact many of our difficulties in life, come from our subconscious mind and how we think about food. How we are brought up and our relationship to food impacts our ability to successfully lose weight. (2)

Some children are brought up in the ‘clean plate club’ whether you are hungry or not. This is a dangerous habit to instill in children because it follows them through adulthood, when cleaning up a plate that was over filled at the start will only encourage weight gain.

People have relationships with the food they eat and crave. Hypnotists work under the theory that hypnosis will break the pattern of eating which results when we are stressed out, happy, celebrating, sad or other emotions that can trigger eating. It is one reason we call it ‘comfort food’.

Weight loss hypnosis claims that hypnotists can help to reprogram your brain so that the impossible is more possible and you no longer have attachments to food. Hypnosis is not the final answer in the battle for weight loss, but hypnotists believe that it can be a huge tool in the fight.

It is used in the same manner as positive affirmations to make you more self-confident and in control of your food choices. A hypnotist can be expensive but CD’s are also sold that claim the same effectiveness and are much more convenient.

The basis behind hypnosis in the war against obesity is to open up the mind of the client so it is more receptive to suggestions. The suggestions are made to a person when they are in an altered state of consciousness. The scientific community also believes that people are able to achieve weight loss through hypnosis.

Weight loss hypnosis is based on two basic tenets:

*To help clients understand that permanent weight loss is based on a change eating habits. They stress that with a change you should feel less deprived than if you are strictly “dieting”.

*To think of food less. When people are dieting they can obsess on their potential weight loss and their next meal. If, instead, people are concentrating on one simple change to their nutritional habits, one change at a time, they are more likely to make the change and less likely to feel deprived.

Hypnosis has been shown to have success with people who have a willingness to open their minds and relinquish control to practitioners. Although most people can be hypnotized if they wish, not all people want this experience. (1)

And, it is important to note that hypnosis will not be able to make a person do something they would not ordinarily morally and ethically consider. For instance, a person who would not ordinarily commit murder or embezzlement would not be able to made to under hypnosis. However, since weight loss and eating habit changes are the goals, hypnosis is often the added boost that helps the program to be successful.

With the necessary nutritional changes and added exercise you are well on your way to weight loss!

(1) Mayo Clinic: Is Weight-Loss Hypnosis Effective?
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/weight-loss-hypnosis/AN01617

(2) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology: Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=7751482

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination: Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy: a meta-analysis
http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/CRDWeb/ShowRecord.asp?ID=11996004303

Weightloss supplements -the facts

 

Weight loss supplements are all the rage,they are every where and sometimes hard to ignore

Obesity is a problem that faces 2/3 of the American  and UK adult population and 15% of the teenagers. I lecture young adults 17-24  and I have witnessed this increase in obesity over the last 10 years. This problem with weight gain has been growing over the past several decades and is creating  medical and emotional problems. (1) As peoples waistlines expand so does the number of weight loss supplements.

Although the way to lose weight is relatively simple, the execution is for many people difficult. Often people will turn to weight loss supplements because changing their eating habits is just so  difficult and using supplements and pills can sometimes help reduce that challenge and in theory make losing weight much less painless.

We also want fast progress and instant results. We want fast food, fast Internet, fast service and fast weight loss. We want it all and we want it quickly and painlessly.

So lets look at Weight loss supplements. They fall into two large categories; over the counter and prescription medications. Prescription supplements are only available from your doctor and a pharmacist. Prescription medications will have undergone severe testing by the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The manufacturing of these products will also be regulated.

Over the counter weight loss supplements are not regulated by the FDA and are not classified as drugs. As they are not classified as drugs there will be no regulation on their distribution or on the manufacturing process.  Usually there are no stringently performed scientific research studies that evaluate their efficacy and possible side effects of the weight loss supplement.

An example of a weight loss supplement is Ephedra. This supplement has shown a good success rate with weight loss but also has many serious side effects. These side effects include blood pressure problems, cardiac issues and even death. The media eventually got to  Ephedra and this made a huge dent in the sales volume of the supplement.This improved the health of those who thought that taking it would be an easy route to lose weight. (2)

Hoodia Gordonii is another supplement that has some medical consequences. There is a credible weight loss in the small studies that have been done but only one type of the Hoodia has the P57 component that is the appetite suppressant. There is some pure Hoodia but there are in fact very few manufacturers that guarantee the authenticity and quality of the product. There have also been some research studies that I referred to in another article here that has indicated significant side effects in the liver. (3)

Many of the over the counter weight loss supplements also use caffeine as their active ingredient. Caffeine dehydrates the body and the client will feels an initial ‘thinness’. This feeling is followed by  rebound bloating when the body attempts to retain as much fluid as possible for survival. Its all part of Homeostasis where the body keeps the fluid balance constant and if too much water is lost it will readjust and retain more.

When you choose a weight loss supplement always look at the ingredients – both the active and inactive ones. Pills often will have inactive ingredients that can affect you adversely, sometimes even as much as the active ingredients. Check with the pharmacist if you are taking any other medications to ensure there are no known drug interactions between the tablets you already take and these over-the-counter ones you are considering.

Just remember this –  anything you purchase and put into your body should be treated just like a medication or drug. Just because it has a  label calling it  a supplement, or all natural or herbal does not mean that it will not have side effects or will not interact with medications you are already taking. It also does not mean that it will not interfere   with any underlying medical conditions.

Keep in mind that Weight loss supplements should only be used together with eating habit changes. if you do not change your eating habits then   once you stop taking the supplements and go back to old ways your weight will pile on again and you’ll gain even more weight than you originally lost.

Weight loss supplements are only a tool in the battle of the bulge. If they are Used correctly and with care then  they will help you to develop good eating habits that you can continue when you no longer take the supplements

References
(1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Adult Obesity Facts
http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.htm
(2) University of Maryland Medical Center: Ephedra Overview: Potential Dangers of a Widely Used Supplement
http://www.umm.edu/features/ep_overview.htm

(3) Planta Medica; Characterization of in vitro pharmacokinetic properties of hoodigogenin A from Hoodia gordonii.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19639535

 

Weightloss using Acupuncture

Acupuncture is one of the most commonly used medical procedures in the world and has its origins in ancient China. The use of  acupuncture to get weight loss became popular back in 2003 when CNN News  reported a series of success stories from weight loss clinics in China.

China has also experienced an increase in obesity like the west and this has come with the introduction and popularity of Western diet choices. Our Standard American Diet more often than not consists of too much protein, too much fat, too much sugar and not near enough fruits and vegetables. In fact even when Americans eat fruits and vegetables they often come from cans and  are over cooked which leaves them with no nutritional value and no live enzymes.

The Asian cultures  have routinely practiced acupuncture medicine before it became known  in the West. They also used it to assist with weight loss. Chinese medical theory states that overweight people have an unbalanced digestive system, and through the use of fine acupuncture needles they open blocked energy pathways and  are able to rebalance the system witch results in weight loss.

Acupuncture has also been shown to strengthen the digestive system, control the appetite and can also improve metabolism which in turn makes you  burn calories more quickly. Weight loss is a balance between burning more calories than you eat. Acupuncture offers an additional system to decrease intake and burn more calories. (1)

 

During the acupuncture procedure a trained practitioner will use very thin stainless steel needles under sterile conditions. The needles are sometimes combined with lasers or electrical stimulation.  The practitioner will manipulate the needles manually to get the best results. The needles are  left in place for up to 30 minutes while the client relaxes in the practitioner’s office.

Clients often  feel heat, tingling and perhaps some numbness in the area where the needles are inserted. Other common side effects could be  dizziness, headaches and nausea. These side effects are however minimal compared to the potential side effects of using other drug related diet supplements to help with your appetite suppression and boost your metabolism.

Along with the acupuncture treatments, a trained practitioner might recommend some herbal supplements. These treatments are not believed to be enough to maintain weight loss but rather jump start some sound nutritional dietary changes. Clients  experience immediate results and this will often help them make better choices. Medical studies have shown that daily exercise, diet choices and dealing with food issues are also an important part of the whole process.

For most people it can take some time for the body to adjust to acupuncture for weight loss but clients report that with patience the food cravings and  the overeating actually disappear. Acupuncture will also help to reduce stress which can be a huge relief  for those stress eaters.

Before choosing a practitioner do your homework. Look for referrals from people who have used this practitioner and read about their experiences. Practitioners should of course be certified doctors who hold certifications through the National Certification Commission For Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. The costs  for Acupuncture will vary with the area of the country and also the experience of the practitioner. Not all insurance companies will cover the costs.

Acupuncture for weight loss is becoming very popular as a weight loss option to over the counter diet supplements and making it on your own. It appears to have the least number of unpleasant  side effects of any of the diet ‘helpers’ and has thousands of years of scientific documentation and case study to prove it’s effectiveness.

The choice is yours……. but those needles are not as scary you might think!

(1) International Journal of Neuroscience; THE TREATMENT OF OBESITY BY ACUPUNCTURE
http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/The%20Treatment%20of%20Obesity%20By%20Acupuncture.pdf

Laxatives and Weight Loss

 

The rate of obesity in the United States is at an all time high. People are searching for the magic pill to make the process of losing weight simple, easy and painless. You may not want to hear this but there is no magic pill. Weight goes ‘on’ the same way it comes off. If you eat more calories than you burn off then its simple- you gain weight. If you eat less than you burn off then you lose weight. Simple. (1)

But while this concept is simple, the practice is not. In this high stress  fast-paced world of ours many of us leave out exercise in order to spend time going to the movies with their children or sitting passively  on the sidelines watching their children play sports. Grabbing a quick hamburger at the local fast food restaurant has taken over from sit down dinners  with vegetables and salad. Do we actually wonder why obesity is at an all time high!

Some of us  in desperation turn to laxatives. Let me start by saying -Laxatives and weight loss are not synonymous….read that again. Laxatives and weight loss are also not healthy or safe. The majority of weight that is lost when we use laxatives is from fluid and the health dangers are significant. (2)

The use of laxatives in an attempt to lose weight is often abused and seems to be common with people who have an eating disorder.

So to understand why it is a bad idea to use laxatives Let’s look at what happens in your body when you take them. After the pill is ingested, the active ingredients in the tablet target the cells of the large intestines. They then irritate the cells and encourage the large intestines to empty, often earlier than the body is ready.

 One of the main functions of the large intestine is to reabsorb water  from the food so that it is not lost from the body as waste.  If you evacuate your bowels too soon you run the risk of dehydration.

The calories from the food you eat are  absorbed in the small intestines and laxatives don’t affect the small intestines. This means that while the intent behind taking laxatives is to decrease the amount of calories absorbed by the food, the only thing that these medications will do is cause the large intestines to evacuate the waste AFTER the small intestines has extracted all of the necessary calories.

After losing fluid from the early bowel movement the body then compensates by retaining fluid. This means laxatives will cause an initial dehydration which makes the person ‘feel’ thin, but within a few hours the body will compensate by retaining the remaining fluid and consequently making the person ‘feel’ bigger.

The body needs fluid to remove the wastes and toxins in the large intestine so retaining fluids will make you feel bad because you can’t get rid of all of the waste products normally evacuated.

Now at this point you might be tempted to take more laxatives to get rid of the full feeling again and so It’s a vicious cycle that sets you up for irritable bowel syndrome and colon tumors. The Prolonged use of laxatives can  lead to cramping, bloating, water retention and the added problem of withdrawal.

Believe me …..the use of laxatives to promote weight loss is just not an option!

All you are doing is  endangering your health and definitely won’t be moving toward achieving your goal.

Ok… so how do you stop using laxatives?

You can stop the abuse of laxatives using several steps.

Unless you have been prescribed by a doctor you should stop using laxatives immediately. This can be easier said than done and may require the help of a mental health professional.

Drink at least 6-10 eight oz glasses of water each day. Do Not have caffeine drinks or alcohol or juices, only water. Get some physical activity each day to encourage regular bowel function.

Make sure you Eat regularly and spread it out over at least 3 meals maybe more. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables, which will immediately improve your chances of weight loss and improve normal bowel function. Keep a record every day of your bowel movements so they can be monitored and you can see a pattern. If you find you are constipated for more than 3 days call your doctor – do not treat yourself!

Your colon will react differently than a normal colon after it has been abused by a laxative regimen and of course it depends how long you were on laxatives

Laxatives and weight loss don’t mix. They don’t work.  You can stop the vicious cycle and move on to a more healthy and fit way of losing weight for life!

References

(1) Centers for Disease Control: Adult Obesity Facts
http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

(2) Columbia University Health; Go Ask Alice: Laxative Abuse – Any Side Effects?
http://goaskalice.columbia.edu/laxative-abuse-any-side-effects

Using Hoodia to Lose Weight

 

Hoodia is a weight loss supplement that is a  newcomer to North America and the weight loss industry. It is another one of the over the counter supplements that  is sold to make the journey to thinness “theoretically” easier and painless.

Hoodia Gordonii was first discovered in 1937 by a Dutch anthropologist. He descovered that African Bushman were usin the flowering plant to suppress their appetite and thirst, when they travelled across the desert.

South African scientists, working with  a British pharmaceutical company called Phytopharm, isolated the active ingredient – P57 in 1995. Then in 1998 another Pharmaceutical company Pfizer spent $21 million to sub-license the patent from Phytopharm. After the initial research Pfizer decided to  return the license. (1) Then, in 2010 Phytopharm also let the patent lease expire. (2)

Hoodia weight loss supplements must contain the P57 from the Hoodia Gordonii plant to be advertised as Hoodia. There are over 13 different Hoodia plants and only one has been found to have the active ingredient that causes the appetite and thirst suppression.

Hoodia weight loss supplements work on your central nervous system and trick the body into thinking it’s full. This will avoid the nagging feelings of hunger. It also tricks the body into losing the trigger for thirst which is worrying as it can potentially cause problems with dehydration, especially on hot  days.

People with diabetes should be especially  careful using the supplement since it tricks the body into thinking that there is sufficient blood sugar. Without the proper feedback mechanism, people suffering from diabetes can suffer dangerously low blood sugar drops that can lead to hypos and death if not treated immediately.

Before using any product including this one, you should always check with your doctor to determine if there may be any interactions with medications you may already be taking or any underlying medical conditions that which you may be suffering. Your pharmacist can also help  with interactions with any over the counter medications you be thinking of buying

Just like any other herbal supplement, Hoodia supplements must be used with caution. The manufacture of Hoodia products are not regulated by any agency. The only real way to know if what is labeled on the bottle is really in the bottle is by an evaluation in an independent laboratory.

Sometimes herbal supplements contain products that are not listed on the label. They are included in the manufacturing process and they are not processed out. Some of these substances in Hoodia weight loss supplements can cause liver dysfunction and damage, which was the reason that Pfizer had backed out of the patent. These side effects on the liver were too much of a liability to the pharmaceutical company Pfizer who was weighing the cost of risk vs. benefit. To the average user the benefit is weight loss. However, the pharmaceutical company was weighing the potential cost of law suits and manufacturing process to reduce the risk of liver damage, against the financial benefit of the sale of the product.

Typical side effects of this supplement are not well documented since there have been no reliable studies using humans since it was introduced in North America.

Although Hoodia Gordonii has been shown through case studies to be effective in weight loss supplementation there have also not been enough studies to show the safety of using this supplement. The choice is always yours. (3)

 

(1) Rebirth Africa: From Hoodia Gordonii to P57
http://www.rebirth.co.za/hoodia/p57_pfizer.htm
(2) NutraIngredients.com: Phytopharm CEO Insists Hoodia Still “Interesting” Despite Patent Disposal
http://www.nutraingredients.com/Industry/Phytopharm-CEO-insists-Hoodia-still-interesting-despite-patent-disposal

(3) Natural News: Hoodia Gornonii is No Miracle Weight Loss Pill, Health Investigation Reveals
http://www.naturalnews.com/002713.html

Using Green Tea to Lose Weight

 

Green tea weight loss supplements are becoming more popular because they reportedly assist people with their weight loss goals. Most experts agree that supplements can significantly help to curb appetite and decrease intake, both of which are needed to lose weight.

Obesity is a significant problem in Western civilization where the Standard Western Diet is full of too much protein, too many fats, too many sugars and not enough fruits and vegetables. Most people don’t have an accurate understanding of an appropriate serving size. A serving of meat is usually 3 oz of lean meat. Measure 3 oz of lean meat. It’s pretty small, about the size of a deck of cards.

The three most commonly used supplements for weight loss are green tea, ephedra and protein. Weight loss products that are purchased over the counter usually contain at least one of these supplements. Protein is used to increase the protein intake of a person and stop using carbohydrates. This puts the body into ketoacidosis which increases the metabolism but places a strain on the kidneys.

Increased protein diets are also fad diets and shouldn’t be maintained for any length of time as they can cause damage to the kidneys and cannot be prolonged for a lifetime.

Ephedra is a common supplement that has been proven to speed metabolism and decrease appetite but it also is linked to significant side effects. Patients have suffered heart attacks and strokes resulting in death using this supplement.

Green tea weight loss supplements have both caffeine and the chemical EGCG. When these two chemicals (part of the production of the supplement) react to each other the metabolism in the body will increase.

There have not been long-term studies using green tea weight loss supplements to document the effectiveness and side effects. Whenever you take any supplements you should consult your doctor to ensure that the supplement will not interfere with any other medications, over the counter medications or health issues you might have.

Green tea weight loss supplements are also full of anti-oxidants that cause an increase energy use in the body, thus burning more calories. Green tea weight loss supplements also stimulate the body to burn fats faster. People who use these supplements in studies will loose approximately 2 ½ pounds per month. (1,2)

Green tea weight loss supplements can also help us to stay healthy by fighting free radicals – oxygen containing molecules that are a by-product of digestion. Free radicals can damage cells, DNA and lead to diseases such as heart disease and cancer. (3)

Although green tea supplements also contain caffeine this does not seem to have the negative effects found in other products with caffeine. Green tea supplements do not usually cause the jitters or speed the heart rate.

Green tea weight loss supplements also contain catechins, an anti-oxidant. These catechins are unfermented in green tea and in their natural state and are believed to suppress fat absorption from the diet. (1)

Theanine is the main amino acid in green tea supplements. Theanine is able to induce relaxation and the release of dopamine which helps to provide a feeling of well-being. Theanine minimizes the effect of caffeine. This might be why green tea doesn’t cause the jitters and increased heart rate.

Green tea weight loss supplements are an option to help people suppress their appetite and eat less while trying to loose weight. Although people who take supplements to lose weight have a higher success rate than those who don’t, people who receive support also have a higher rate of success. The decision to take supplements is yours. Be sure you have all your facts straight before using any supplement.

(1) The Journal of Nutrition: Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/2/264.full.pdf

(2) The University of Chicago Medicine: Green Tea Derivative Causes Loss of Appetite, Weight Loss in Rats
http://www.uchospitals.edu/news/2000/20000223-tea.html

(3) University of Maryland Medical Center: Green Tea
http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/green-tea-000255.htm

Menopause Belly

One of the hardest things for a woman over 35 is the changes that happen to your body when you go through menopause. I know what I am talking about here as I have experienced this myself and i know it is due to a hormonal shift that happens in women after 35.

The good news is…

There is a way to get rid of your menopause belly by avoiding these 3 belly fat triggers…

=> AVOID These 3 Belly Fat Triggers And Get Rid Of Your Menopause Belly…

And just in case this sounds too good to be true, check out all the women on the website who are over 35 and have turned off their menopause switch, melting their belly fat fast…

Kathy

 

11 Amazing benefits of Fasting {When done correctly}

http://63ea7l52qc7xc34o6nnlj1um86.hop.clickbank.net/

Author and Fitness Trainer Shaun Hadsall shares with us how intermittent fasting can help you lose fat fast (and stay healthy)


11 AMAZING benefits of Intermittent Fasting (but only when it’s done RIGHT!)

I recently had my blood work completed and my good cholesterol (HDL) was over double what is considered healthy.

The exact words of my doctor were:

“Your cholesterol levels are incredible. People would pay thousands of dollars to have your cholesterol levels.”

But what he said next really hit home: 

“Keep using intermittent fasting… I guarantee this is a big reason why you’re so healthy.”

One the easiest strategies you can ever use to lose weight (and still get away with eating lots of your favorite foods) is intermittent fasting.

Simply abstaining from food for 16 to 24 hours a few days of the week will not only help you keep the pounds off…

It has AMAZING benefits for your overall health.

Many studies show that strategic fasting can:

1: Have powerful effects on your brain and fight against Alzheimer’s 

2: Help you live longer (study show rats live as much as 36-83% longer)

3: Increase Growth Hormone as much as 5-fold

4: Improve cellular health through a process called autophagy

5: Protect against disease

6: Increase insulin sensitivity

7: Boost metabolic rate, while helping you lower calorie intake

8: Burn more belly fat

9: Reduce Inflammation

10: Improve heart health and reduce bad (LDL) cholesterol

11: Reduce cancer risk

But the #1 reason I LOVE intermittent fasting is because it makes fat loss SIMPLE because you’re not consumed with eating food every 3-4 hours.

And when it’s done RIGHT, you can literally have a cheat day EVERY 5 days and lose up to 25 pounds in only 25 days.

This is the foundation of our newly updated:

>> 2016 Xtreme Fat Loss Diet (lose 25lbs in only 25 days!)

And it’s all based on real science… 

The XFLD is the first diet in history that let’s you:

– Lose weight incredibly fat WITHOUT frustrating plateaus…
– GAIN lean, calorie burning muscle at the same time…
– Finish with a metabolism that’s faster and healthier than when you started…

If you’re wondering whether or not this new program is for you, just ask yourself this simple question:

>> Do you want to lose up to 25 LEGIT pounds in just 25 days?

If so, you’re not going to find a more strategic, faster solution anywhere. Period.

It’s founded on SCIENCE.

It’s based on STRATEGY.

And until tonight, at midnight, you can get it for over 50% off the normal price + 3 Brand New Rapid Fat Loss bonuses FREE: 

 

 


 

Over 35 And Still Struggling To Lose Belly Fat?

If you are in the same age group as me…..wrong side of 50.. then you will know how difficult it is to lose weight.

It is frustrating to say the least!

That is why I was interested to read about a new method that  talks about the “Menopause Molecules”

They describe a method that gives results in 21 days without starving or suffering through long boring workouts

Now that was enough to get me interested! http://order0105.bellyskkp.hop.clickbank.net

It is just sole destroying when you eat like a bird and exercise regularly with no results.

It Used to be that all the experts  did not believe in targeted fat loss.

These guys are proving them wrong!

take care

Kathy

 

 

 

4 Minute News Clip Reveals the 5 Root Causes of Stubborn Fat

 

Take this quick test…

 

Touch the fat on your face (even the leanest people still
have some fat in their cheeks).

 

You’ll notice that it’s warm and mushy. But…

 

When you touch the fat on your belly, hips, butt, or any area
where you have cellulite—you’ll notice it’s much cooler
and harder.

 

This is the primary reason you’ll notice people lose fat in
areas like their face FIRST…

 

But in order to get rid of “stubborn” fat you have address the
root causes.

 

At the link below one of my best friends in the world, Celebrity
Trainer Bruce Krahn, reveals:

 

The 5 Root Causes of “Stubborn” Fat (and how 
to remove it from your body)

 

Bruce recently appeared on Canada’s #1 morning show to
share exactly what foods you should eat…

 

And what foods you should AVOID in order to remove and
get rid of your bodys most stubborn fat areas.

 

Just click the Next Page button below and you’ll see a short
4 minute news clip of Bruce sharing how to remove this pesky
fat from your body permanently.

 

GO TO THE NEXT PAGE ==>

 

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